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45.Plasma Science by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Therefore a quantum particle has a finite probability to penetrate any potential barrier, and thus tunneling phenomena are strictly quantum mechanical with no counterpart in classical dynamics. For the potential wall, Fig. 2, the transmission coefficient or probability for tunneling is Pt Ȍ exp[(2d/h)͙2m(V Ϫ E)], where h is the Planck’s constant, d is the width and V is the height of the potential wall, and E is the energy of the particle. 2 nm and V Ϫ E Ȃ 1 eV. In nature there are numerous examples for tunneling, for example, field ionization, nuclear fusion and fission, impurity tunneling, and so forth, which give rise to many applications, for example, tunneling microscopes (2), tunnel and Esaki diodes (3), and Josephson junctions.

Therefore radiative transitions between states l, m and lЈ, mЈ are possible only if but j = 0 → j = 0 is forbidden (31) (27) with ⑀ ϭ (E Ϫ Er)/(⌫/2), Er the resonance energy, ⌫ the resonance width and q the shape parameter. In all the processes previously described the energy is conserved; hence in the nonrelativistic limit hν + Wi = Wf + 421 Ei − Ef ~c 3 a20 dif(q) (29) (q) 0 2 (q) with the dipole strength d(q) (q ϭ 0, Ϯ1) if ϭ ͉͗f͉r /a ͉i͉͘ , and r the spherical component of the relative vector, Ei and Ef the initial and final energy.

Speculation began in 1944 among scientists developing the atomic bomb at Los Alamos (1). By 1951, these discussions spawned experiments in the United States and Great Britain. The work was initially classified, as all atomic research was in those times. In the same period, a parallel effort was takJ. ), Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Copyright # 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 46 FUSION PLASMAS ing place in the Soviet Union, also within the secret confines of the weapons program.

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