By Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik
An critical shop of knowledge at the English language, written through the various best-known grammarians on the earth.
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Extra resources for A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language
The mobile vowel appears to split the final two consonants of the stem in this one form. In either instance, one has to do with the grammatical ending -Ø, and a single form in the word’s inflection that contains the mobile vowel. The mobile vowel e may represent either morphophonemic e or è. The difference between e and è can be determined by looking at the effect on a preceding consonant. R2 replacement appears before mobile e, while only R4 replacement (the change of k, g to k′, g′) occurs before mobile è: R2 replacement before mobile e: Compare with: pies dog-Nsg.
Panià Buszko, etc. See Da∏em Nowak piàtk´. I gave Nowak a 5 (an A): since the name is not declined, one infers that Nowak is a woman. 60 3. F EMININE-GENDER NOUN DECLENSION d. Both elements of a hyphentated female surname are succeptible to declination, as NV Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, GDL PawlikowskiejJasnorzewskiej, AI Pawlikowskà-Jasnorzewskà; compare to NA D´bowska-Król, GDL D´bowskiej-Król, AI D´bowskà-Król. e. The suffixes -owa ‘wife of’ (with an adjectival declension) and -ówna ‘Miss, daughter of’ (nominal declension) are not much used today.
Kozio∏ goat-Nsg. krosien loom-Gpl. kwiecieƒ April-NAsg. marzec March-NAsg. orze∏ eagle-Nsg. wzorzec model-NAsg. dworca Gsg. grudnia Gsg. kot∏a Gsg. korca Gsg. koz∏a GAsg. krosno NAsg. kwietnia Gsg. marca Gsg. or∏a GAsg. wzorca Gsg. As a rule, mobile vowels occur in only one place in a noun’s declension: before the ending -Ø. Where they do occur, they compensate, as it were, for the lack of an overt ending, becoming, in effect, a surrogate grammatical marker. Mobile-vowel mistakes will often be incomprehensible from the point of view of a speaker of Polish.