By William Lockley Miller
Dependent upon surveys and interviews with executive officers and electorate, this booklet makes a speciality of matters reminiscent of bribery, corruption, inefficiency and freedom of data in Ukraine, Bulgaria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The authors transcend an research of public perceptions and behavior and consider public attitudes in the direction of proposals for reform. They demonstrate how the matter of electorate' interactions with officers varies in type in addition to in measure around the international locations of significant and japanese Europe.
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Extra resources for A Culture of Corruption: Coping With Government in Post-Communist Europe
If citizens were as happy to tip an official with ten per centof the bill as they are to tip a waiterin a restaurant by the same amount then democratic theorists would also be a lot less concerned about whether officials took bribes fiom their clients. Conversely, even if officials never took bribesfiom their clients, democratic theorists would remain concerned about whether citizens were treated fairly or unfairly. Fairness and equity are fundamental, corruption is merely one mechanism of inequity and unfairness.
But they also complain about the behaviour of their clients as well as their employers. What upsets officials most, however, is not their clients’ use of contacts, presents or bribes but their clients’ useof other strategiessuch as appeals,argument or persistence-and,aboveall, their clients’ threats of violence. Officials’ experience of clients, and their attitudes towards clients, vary accordingto the institution in which they work. Those employed in education put the highest priority on freedom and discretion to organise their work, the police put the highest priority on strict application of rules and regulations, and those in health care the puthighest priorityon helping their clients as much as possible.
That leads us to put more weight than doeither the public or officials themselves on opening up the interactions between officials and their clients. Rather than prioritising stricter controls and penalties(asdo the public) or higher salaries (as do officials), our analytic findings pointto the importance of providing clients with alternative access points, to better appeal procedures, to a more public setting for client-ffkial interactions, to more clearly and publicly set-out rights for clients on the one hand,and to moreclearlyandpubliclyset-outuser-charges on the other-all designed to stiffen clients’ resistance to extortion and to reduce their incentive to offer gifts.