By David Salo
From the 1910s to the Seventies, writer and linguist J. R. R. Tolkien labored at growing plausibly lifelike languages for use by way of the creatures and characters in his novels. Like his different languages, Sindarin was once a new invention, now not in accordance with any latest or synthetic language. by the point of his dying, he had demonstrated rather entire descriptions of 2 languages, the "elvish" tongues Quenya and Sindarin. He used to be in a position to compose poetic and prose texts in either, and he additionally built a long series of alterations for either from an ancestral "proto-language," similar to the advance of historic languages and able to research with the innovations of old linguistics.
In A Gateway to Sindarin, David Salo has created a quantity that could be a severe examine an interesting subject. Salo covers the grammar, morphology, and heritage of the language. Supplemental fabric features a vocabulary, Sindarin names, a word list of phrases, and an annotated checklist of works correct to Sindarin. What emerges is an homage to Tolkien's scholarly philological efforts.
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Extra info for A Gateway To Sindarin: A Grammar of an Elvish Language from J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings
Norman French (a Romance language) became the language of court and the nobility, while local language varieties continued to be used by the common people. 4 This “mixed language” became a kind of lingua franca for the entire population, most of whom spoke sometimes mutually unintelligible varieties of Old English, Celtic, and Scandinavian tongues. ). The impact of Norman French on the English language is so great that scholars have given a distinct name to the majority language as spoken in Southern England beginning about 1066 – Middle English.
For example, the difference in form between sing and sang cannot be called A F FI X A T IO N (a cover term that includes prefixation and suffixation) because there is no specific word piece that has been added to the stem. Rather, the stem vowel has just changed from i ([ɩ]) to a ([æ]). One might ask how this is different from “weak suppletion” described above. The difference is that sing and sang can be related by a pattern (“change i to a to form the past tense”) that applies to several other verbs like drink/drank, sink/sank, sit/sat, etc.
This is a fact about the verb hit that just has to be memorized. It cannot be guessed (or “predicted”) by applying a rule; therefore it is lexical expression. The lexical entry for the verb hit has to specify, among many other things, that the past tense is simply hit. Why would we call past tense formation for the verb hit an “expression” at all when the word does not change its form? Why don’t we just say that past tense is not expressed for this verb? Aren’t there a lot of other meaning components that have no overt expression?