Grammar

A grammar of contemporary Polish by Oscar E. Swan

By Oscar E. Swan

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Example text

The mobile vowel appears to split the final two consonants of the stem in this one form. In either instance, one has to do with the grammatical ending -Ø, and a single form in the word’s inflection that contains the mobile vowel. The mobile vowel e may represent either morphophonemic e or è. The difference between e and è can be determined by looking at the effect on a preceding consonant. R2 replacement appears before mobile e, while only R4 replacement (the change of k, g to k′, g′) occurs before mobile è: R2 replacement before mobile e: Compare with: pies dog-Nsg.

Panià Buszko, etc. See Da∏em Nowak piàtk´. I gave Nowak a 5 (an A): since the name is not declined, one infers that Nowak is a woman. 60 3. F EMININE-GENDER NOUN DECLENSION d. Both elements of a hyphentated female surname are succeptible to declination, as NV Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, GDL PawlikowskiejJasnorzewskiej, AI Pawlikowskà-Jasnorzewskà; compare to NA D´bowska-Król, GDL D´bowskiej-Król, AI D´bowskà-Król. e. The suffixes -owa ‘wife of’ (with an adjectival declension) and -ówna ‘Miss, daughter of’ (nominal declension) are not much used today.

Kozio∏ goat-Nsg. krosien loom-Gpl. kwiecieƒ April-NAsg. marzec March-NAsg. orze∏ eagle-Nsg. wzorzec model-NAsg. dworca Gsg. grudnia Gsg. kot∏a Gsg. korca Gsg. koz∏a GAsg. krosno NAsg. kwietnia Gsg. marca Gsg. or∏a GAsg. wzorca Gsg. As a rule, mobile vowels occur in only one place in a noun’s declension: before the ending -Ø. Where they do occur, they compensate, as it were, for the lack of an overt ending, becoming, in effect, a surrogate grammatical marker. Mobile-vowel mistakes will often be incomprehensible from the point of view of a speaker of Polish.

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