Grammar

A grammar of Logba (Ikpana) by Kofi Dorvlo

By Kofi Dorvlo

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Sample text

For example, nlu alu. The /l/ of the progressive morpheme completely assimilates to become /n/ after the nasal of 1SG. in the Alakpeti dialect. The /l/ however, becomes a stop /d/ in the Tota dialect16. In other cases, (non nasal, non-low prefix), the /u/ vowel of present progressive assimilates in closeness and in frontness to the vowel of the subject prefix and for the mid-vowel in [ATR] to the vowel of the stem. In the 3SG, the progressive morpheme assimilates to the vowel of the pronoun [ɔ] / [o] to become lɔ, lo.

Chapter 2 14 Another type of two consonant onset has a glide as second consonant. The glide is either /y/ or /w/. The central vowel /a/ goes with both glides. This syllable can form a word by itself. It can occur in polysyllabic words as a stem of a word. This is exemplified below: 9. tswi onzyɛ́ byá abyá fyɛ́ fyé gɔkwaɖu ‘fight with blows’ ‘children’ ‘pound’ ‘fold’ ‘animal’ ‘cow’ ‘owls’ ‘boil’ ‘chair’ ‘exceed’ ‘dehust corn’ ‘nine’ A palatal nasal / ɲ / does not occur before a consonant (or glide) hence the digraph /ny/ is unambiguously [ɲ] and phonemically never /ɲy/.

The underlying vowel is /u/ because this is the vowel quality that surfaces after a consonant subject prefix such as /n/ for 1SG, and after a open vowel subject prefix such as /a/ for 2SG. For example, nlu alu. The /l/ of the progressive morpheme completely assimilates to become /n/ after the nasal of 1SG. in the Alakpeti dialect. The /l/ however, becomes a stop /d/ in the Tota dialect16. In other cases, (non nasal, non-low prefix), the /u/ vowel of present progressive assimilates in closeness and in frontness to the vowel of the subject prefix and for the mid-vowel in [ATR] to the vowel of the stem.

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