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Advanced Grammar in Use (2nd Edition) by HEWINGS

By HEWINGS

Complicated Grammar in Use moment version is an absolutely up to date model of the hugely winning grammar identify. This new revised version focuses in particular at the complexities of grammatical offerings that complicated scholars have to savor. it is also a finished easy Grammar Reference so scholars can simply evaluation their knowing of language parts they've got formerly studied. This version, with solutions and CD-ROM, is perfect for self-study. The CD-ROM comprises 1000's of interactive routines to enhance the language realized within the booklet.

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Example text

If we were to number matching opening and closing parens, we get the annotated structure in (6): (6) (1(2(3Nemo È ate)3 È Dory’s)2 È seaweed)1 You will note that all of {Nemo, ate, Dory’s} are enclosed in the (2)2 parentheses. Seaweed is excluded from this set. In this set-theoretic sense then, Dory’s is closer to ate than it is to seaweed. However, this Xies in the face of native-English-speaker intuitions about what words go together with one another. On an intuitive level, we know that Dory’s has a closer semantic relationship to seaweed than it does to ate.

B) Has Mary gone? As a Wrst hypothesis, we might argue that the general procedure here is to invert the Wrst two words in the sentence (such a formalization would be consistent with concatenation view of syntax). But this hypothesis is easily disproved: (19) (a) The man has gone. (b) *Man the has gone? So instead, we might hypothesize that what happens is that we move the Wrst auxiliary verb to the beginning of the sentence. Note that by introducing a notion of ‘‘auxiliary verb’’ (and other categories) we have already moved beyond the system of a simple Wnite-state grammar into one where the states are categorized.

In more recent work (starting in Gruber 1967), it is frequently assumed that the preterminal category and the word itself are identical (more on this below), so we need no distinction between preterminals and terminals and call both the word and its category the terminal node. 28 preliminaries (Ј) S NP D the VP N man V left terminals The intuition behind this view is that categories are properties of the words, and so they should be represented as a single object. Constituent-structure trees are graphs in the mathematical sense of the word and, as such, can be formally described in terms of graph theory.

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