Austrian Auxiliary Troops 1792-1816 by David Hollins

By David Hollins

To help her usual troops, Austria made wide use of auxiliary forces through the progressive and Napoleonic Wars. The Balkan Grenzers played a mixture of army Frontier safeguard, box military and lightweight roles, and have been separated into the nationwide Grenz regiments in 1798. French émigrés, Belgian and varnish volunteers, German Jäger and Balkan refugees shaped volunteer devices within the 1790s, which have been in most cases regularised into mild Battalions (1798-1801).The military garrison troops of 1800 have been built into the conscript Landwehr of 1808, even though volunteers (Freiwillige) joined the sector military in 1809. Hungary and Croatia supplied conventional revolt militias that fought at Raab in 1809. This name examines the various histories, agency and vibrant uniforms of those multi-national troops.

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Com INDEX Numbers in bold refer to illustrations. Agamemnon, HMS 7 Agincourt, HMS 14, 23–24, 23, 24, 33, 42–43 specifications 29 wartime modifications 42 wartime service 46 Argentina 21, 23–24 Asquith, Herbert 14 Bacon, Captain Reginald 13 Bannerman-Campbell, Henry 13–14 Bellerophon, HMS 14–15, 17, 17, 45 Bellerophon class 7, 10, 16–17, 33 specifications 25 wartime modifications 40–41 wartime service 45 Brazil 21, 23–24 Churchill, Winston 24 coaling ships 9, 10 Collingwood, HMS 18–19, 45 Colossus, HMS 23, 42, 46 Colossus class 21, 22–23, 33, 36 specifications 29 wartime modifications 38, 42 wartime service 46 Committee on Designs 8–9 Deadman, Henry 8 design and development 5–24 Agincourt see Agincourt, HMS Bellerophon class see Bellerophon class the big gun battleship 7–9, 13 Colossus class see Colossus class Dreadnought see Dreadnought, HMS gunnery fire control see fire control Neptune see Neptune, HMS new features 5 pre-dreadnoughts see pre-dreadnoughts rebuilding the fleet 13–14 St Vincent class see St Vincent class steam turbines for propulsion 4, 5, 8, 10, 12 Director of Naval Construction (DNC) see Watts, Sir Philip Dreadnought, HMS 4–5, 7, 9–13, 10–11, 12, 16–17, 26–27 armaments 5, 9–10, 20, 29, 33, 44 armour 12, 36 design and construction 8–9 defects/criticisms 13, 20 officer accommodation under bridge 12–13 propulsion and speed 12, 13 era of naval history named after 4, 10–11 largest/most powerful warship in world 4, 6, 9, 10 launched 4, 9, 13, 14 specifications 25 wartime modifications 40 wartime service 44–45 dreadnoughts armaments 5, 9–10, 20, 21, 23, 24, 29–30, 32, 33, 37 homogenous main armament 5, 10, 29 lacking secondary armaments 7, 10 main battery 33–34 building programme 4–5, 6 design and development see design and development other countries building 5, 14, 17 ‘super dreadnoughts’ 21, 23 Durston, Chief Sir John 8 fighting potential 29–37 fire control see fire control main battery 33–34 protection 36–37 fire control 5, 10, 10, 30–33 Barr and Stroud coincidence rangefinder 30, 31 Dreyer Fire Control Table 31–32, 31 Fisher, Admiral Sir John 4, 7–10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 33 Germany dreadnoughts 20, 30, 34 building 5, 14, 17 Helgoland class (Germany) 30, 34 Hercules, HMS 22, 23, 34–35, 46 wartime modifications 42 Hibernia, HMS 5 Hood, HMS 6, 13 Hood, Sir Arthur 6 Italy: ship-building 8 Japan: dreadnought/ship-building 8, 17 Jellicoe, Admiral Sir John 14, 16, 41 Jutland, battle of (1916) 7, 10, 14–15, 37, 38, 42, 44,-46 Krupp armour 6, 12, 34 Liberal Government 13–14, 22 Lloyd George, D.

Both Neptune and the two Colossus-class ships kept their boats clear of the guns by carrying them on a flying bridge mounted above the wing turrets. This shows Neptune as she appeared in 1914, before her forward flying bridge was removed, and Hercules as she looked at Jutland. com The armoured protection of the Colossus-class dreadnoughts represented an improvement over the Neptune, but to save weight protection was still concentrated on the waterline belt, the conning tower and the turret barbettes.

Additional lifesaving equipment was also provided after Jutland in the shape of Carley rafts. Searchlights were concentrated onto specially built platforms beneath the funnels. Gunnery modifications included the provision of range clocks in the masts, and deflection scales painted on the after turret to provide target information to the ships astern if the dreadnought formed part of a line astern formation. F HMS VANGUARD IN SCAPA FLOW HMS Vanguard was a St Vincent-class dreadnought, which in turn was only a minor variation of the original Dreadnought.

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