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Biopolitics and International Values. Investigating Liberal by Ralph Pettman

By Ralph Pettman

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Marxist-Leninist commentators claim . . [it] as a distinctive socialist trait and oppose the slogan " o n e for all and all for o n e " . . to the slogan which for them typifies the egoistic, individualistic human relations in the capitalist world: " m a n is a 10 wolf to m a n . " 40 Biopolitics and International Values Unfair to wolves, in fact, but the American ethic of human competition certainly has something of a predatory quality, built as it is upon an exaggerated reverence for personal achievement and self-help.

Can. 18 Those not impressed by aristocratic capacities for sustained public . " service, however well-intentioned the aristocrats themselves might be, look to ways of securing a civil right to dissent. HUMAN NATURE: SELFISH OR SOCIAL? The question then occurs: given what seems to be an irreducible contrast between such basic human qualities, how selfish or how social are we? What empirical evidence is there that might suggest one conception or the other as the more significant cause of how we behave?

34. C. Geertz, Interpretation of Cultures, p . 35; p. ' " 35. , p. 36. 36. , p. 37. 37. , p . 37. 38. For a typical example of this stratigraphy, see M . Polanyi, "Life's Irreducible Structure," Science: 160 (1968): 1308-12. Geertz summarizes the argument thus: As one analyses man, one peels off layer after layer, each such layer being complete and irreducible in itself, revealing another, quite different sort of layer underneath. Strip off the motley forms of culture and one finds the structural and functional regularities of social organisation.

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