By Eric S. Grace
(Joseph Henry Press) Revised version goals to aid readers comprehend and participate in biotechnology debates. issues comprise how biotechnology happened, instruments within the genetic engineering workshop, biotechnology and the physique, biotechnology at the farm, biotechnology and the surroundings, moral matters, and extra. For clinicians. past version: c1997. Softcover.
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Additional resources for Biotechnology Unzipped: Promises And Realities, 2nd edition (2006)
For example, the most common method for introducing foreign DNA into plant cells uses a bacterium named Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This naturally occurring microbe infects plant cells and splices its own genes into them, causing the plant to grow tumors. Scientists first remove the tumor-causing genes from the Agrobacterium. Then they add to the bacterial plasmid the DNA they want transferred to plant cells. When the modified Agrobacterium is mixed with plant cells, it transfers the new DNA to the plant cells.
Html Chapter 2 Tools in the Genetic Engineering Workshop In a lab somewhere in the United States, a technician picks up a cordless, handheld gene gun that weighs less than 1 lb and looks like a plastic toy. With a squeeze of the trigger, the technician shoots millions of microparticles coated with DNA molecules into plant cells. In another lab, using another technology, a different technician places a tiny sample of DNA into a microwave-size machine, closes the lid, and punches numbers into the control panel.
Since viruses attack by sending their DNA or RNA into a cell, bacteria use restriction enzymes to counterattack by chopping up the foreign molecules into bits, thus restricting the infection. Crucially, each restriction enzyme snips a DNA molecule at specific points only, identified by a particular sequence of nucleotides. Different enzymes recognize and cut different sequences. ” With restriction enzymes as their cutting tools, scientists can not only produce standard fragments of DNA, but can also know that every cut length ends with a particular nucleotide sequence — a fact that later helps them join different fragments of DNA together.