English As A Second Language

Blue Skies: Workbook Bk. 3 by R. Holt

By R. Holt

* offers a number not obligatory extra workouts and actions to enhance studying of the objective language * basically meant for school room use, yet can also be used for homework assignments

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Instead the particle c-commands the noun. Nevertheless these two elements form a single phonological word. (19) Shanghai Chinese (Selkirk & Shen 1990) MH MH LH HL LH LH (MH) (MH) (L H L) (LH) tsou taw 'noetsiN 'geq 'lu > tsou taw 'noetsiN 'geq 'lu [VP [DP ]] 'walk' 'to' 'Nanjing' PRT 'way' 'take the way to Nanjing' We thus have evidence that when a functional element and a lexical element together form a phonological word, the c-command relation between them may go in either direction. If we now turn to the phrase in (20), we get a clear indication that c-command is not at all relevant for the organization of syntactic terminals into phonological words.

If the combination of verb and aspect marker is seen as one word, it follows, on the lexicalist view, that the positioning of the aspect marker is determined by morphological principles. If, on the other hand, the aspect marker is seen as an independent grammatical word, its position must be determined by syntax. Similarly, if verb plus aspect marker is one word, the lexicalist hypothesis states that this word must be an indivisible syntactic element. If the aspect marker is seen instead as a separate word, the lexicalist view will allow it to have its own syntactic representation.

This is shown by the contrast between the phrase in (44) and the compound hi (45) and between the phrase in (46) and the phrasal word in (47). (44) English a. a black bird b. a black and beautiful bird (45) English a. a blackbird b. * a black-and-beautiful-bird (46) English a. a jack in the box b. a jack in the little box (47) English a. a jack-in-the-box b. * ajack-in-the-little-box Compounds and phrasal words are thus examples of words that are not minimal free forms. The reason for counting them as words is that they share with words the indivisibility demonstrated above, and they also show the syntactic behavior of noncompound words—that is, of simplex stems.

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